Posts Tagged: Canadian Space Agency

Student team studies human genetics in microgravity

TelOmG Team Photo

The members of team TelOmG, from left to right, are Erin Richardson (EngSci Year 4), Anthony Piro, Miranda Badovinac in the top row; Taylor Peters, Dunja Matic (both EngSci Year 4), Luca Castelletto (EngSci Year 3) in the middle row; Samantha Aberdein, Emma Belhadfa (EngSci Year 3), Nicole Richardson, Krish Joshi, and MacKenzie Campbell (EngSci 2T0 + PEY, ChemE MASc candidate) in the bottom row. (Photos courtesy of team TelOmG)

 

A team of U of T students is preparing to see their research take off next week. They are among just six university teams from across Canada selected to conduct a study in a microgravity environment aboard the National Research Council Canada’s (NRC) Falcon-20 jet — the same plane used to train the Canadian Space Agency’s astronauts. 

As part of the Canadian Reduced Gravity Experiment Design Challenge (CAN-RGX), the team, called TelOmG, has spent the past year designing and building a unique experiment to examine the impact of spaceflight on astronauts’ genes. 

During the flight, scheduled for August 19, the students will investigate the effects of changes in gravity on the genetic regulation of human telomeres. Telomeres are protective caps at the ends of our chromosomes that are linked to genomic stability. Shortening of telomeres is associated with aging, while lengthening can be associated with cancer. 

The idea for the experiment came to team lead Erin Richardson (EngSci Year 4) while reading NASA’s landmark Twins Study, an investigation of spaceflight’s effects on the human body. The study examined astronaut Scott Kelly, who spent nearly a year in space, and his twin brother Mark who remained earthbound, and found Scott’s telomeres unexpectedly grew longer during his space flight. They returned to normal shortly after his return to Earth. In contrast, his twin’s telomeres remained stable during the same period.   

“Our experiment investigates whether this increase in telomere length was due to reduced gravity or some other factor, such as increased radiation or stress during the spaceflight,” says Richardson. 

Flying parabolic manoeuvres on the NRC’s Falcon 20 will allow the team to isolate microgravity from the other factors present on the International Space Station. However, while Scott Kelly spent months in space, the experiment will only undergo five periods of 20 seconds of microgravity each. 

The students had to devise a way to test whether telomeres are affected by microgravity in under 20 seconds. “Telomere length won’t change that fast,” says Richardson. “The key was to focus on the transcription of the genes that control them. Previous studies found transcriptomes changed significantly within 20 seconds of altered gravity.” 

Richardson has built her team with students from EngSci’s aerospace and biomedical systems majors and the life sciences: MacKenzie Campbell (EngSci 2T0 + PEY, ChemE MASc candidate)Dunja MaticTaylor Peters (both EngSci Year 4), Emma BelhadfaLuca Castelletto (both EngSci Year 3), physiology master’s student Anthony Piro, Year 3 life sciences student Miranda Badovinac, and Grade 12 students Samantha Aberdein, Krish Joshi, and Nicole Richardson. 

The aerospace engineering team members focused on designing and building the physical apparatus while biomedical systems and life science students designed and tested the experiment’s scientific methods. 

“The team brought together students with different areas of expertise, several age groups, and diverse mentors. One of the beautiful things that happens when you bring together people with so many different backgrounds is the ingenuity in the questions they ask each other,” says Professor Rodrigo Fernandez-Gonzalez (BME), chair of EngSci’s biomedical systems major. “Those questions often challenge dogmas and assumptions, and can ultimately lead to amazing discoveries.” 

To test their hypothesis that microgravity contributes to changes in gene transcription related to telomeres, the students will “freeze cells in time” by preserving their nucleic acids before and after each short period of microgravity. They will analyze the nucleic acids after the flight for changes in the expression levels of genes that regulate telomeres.   

The experiment’s apparatus consists of a syringe filled with a stabilization solution and connected to a series of chambers containing live cells. The electronic control system will inject the solution into the correct chamber when manually triggered by the students on board the flight just before and after each period of microgravity. Some samples are frozen before any periods of hypergravity or microgravity to control for environmental conditions on board the jet. 

TelOmG injection system

The TelOmG injection system. (Graphic courtesy of team TelOmG)

The entire experiment had to fit into a 50 cm cube and weigh no more than 45 kg, among other constraints. “Little things that you wouldn’t normally consider are much more challenging in microgravity,” says Castello, the team’s mechanical lead. “For example, we had to ensure everything is absolutely leak-proof and secured so that there’s no chance of small components or liquid floating around the plane’s cabin. Since we are dealing with cells, we had to create a sterile system while also minimizing bubbles that could interfere with our fluid pathways.” 

Team TelOmG presented their proposal at the Johnson Space Centre Astronomical Society in June and has been invited to share their findings at the International Aeronautical Congress in Dubai in October. 

 Working in the midst of a pandemic presented additional challenges. Access to wet labs and lab safety training was restricted. “We’ve been blown away by the support we received from professors, researchers and private companies during this time,” says Belhadfa. “They helped us to get what we needed when public health restrictions created obstacles.”  

Team members also had to work on components in isolation for many months. “Normally when we work in a team and something goes wrong during equipment testing, we have a good laugh together,” says Castelletto. “It’s a lot less funny when you’re all alone in your house.” 

Planning and testing a complex experiment from start to finish has been an eye-opening journey for the team. “From our experiences in design courses like Praxis, we knew to expect things not to go as planned,” says Campbell. “We really learned to take a wide view of the project and lean on our project management skills.” 

Team members Piro and Richardson will take part in the flight next week. 

This article originally appeared in the U of T Engineering News.


Keeping your data safe: EngSci alumnus Karl Martin explains what it takes

smart phone

 

Unlocking your smart phone using your fingerprint is very convenient, but it comes with a risk of identity theft and surveillance.  To mark Data Privacy Day on January 28, biometrics expert and alumnus Karl Martin (EngSci 0T1, ECE MASc 0T3, PhD 1T0) explained to U of T Engineering what you need to know to keep your biometric data safe.

Read the full story here.


Taking off with Kristen Facciol (EngSci 0T9), Canadian space roboticist

Kristen Facciol in control room

Kristen Facciol (EngSci0T9) in the Mission Control Centre of NASA’s Johnson Space Center. Facciol has become the 14th Canadian to earn a CSA/NASA Robotics Flight Controller Certficiation. (Courtesy: Kristen Facciol/NASA)

 

EngSci alumna Kristen Facciol (0T9 Aerospace) has an exceptionally exciting job. She recently became one of only 14 Canadians to earn the CSA/NASA Robotics Flight Controller Certification, which will allow her to provide direct support to the International Space Station during spacewalks and other operations. Facciol currently works as an operations engineer with the Canadian Space Agency and has spent the last year and a half in Houston, Texas, at NASA’s Johnson Space Centre.

Read about how EngSci helped prepare Facciol for her career in the multidisciplinary aerospace sector.


EngSci students selected to compete in Canadian Reduced Gravity Experiment Design Challenge

 

The members of Team FAM

U of T Engineering’s Team FAM (Fluids Affected by Magnetism) includes Engineering Science students (L-R): Twesh Upadhyaya, Tyler Gamvrelis, Jacob Weber and Hanzhen Lin. (Photo: Courtesy Team FAM)

 

A team of U of T Engineering students is set to launch an experiment aboard the National Research Council of Canada’s (NRC) Falcon 20 jet as part of the Canadian Reduced Gravity Experiment Design Challenge (CAN-RGX).

Team FAM (Fluids Affected by Magnetism) is one of just four post-secondary teams selected for this year’s CAN-RGX, joining teams from the University of Calgary and Queen’s University. The teams will fly various experiments in microgravity during the flight campaign, taking place in Ottawa at the end of July 2018.

The flight campaign for the competition will take place over three days in Ottawa during the week of July 25, 2018.

“What really struck me was the opportunity to not only fly in microgravity but to conduct an experiment in microgravity and really see the progress from start to finish — from the proposal to conducting the experiment on a very unique testbed,” said Twesh Upadhyaya (Year 3 EngSci), one of the two primary mission specialists for Team FAM who will fly onboard the Falcon 20. “This year’s CAN-RGX is a unique opportunity for us to put into practice all of the engineering design knowledge we’ve gained so far.”

The competition challenges post-secondary student teams from across the country to design and build an experiment to be flown on board the NRC’s Falcon 20 — an aircraft modified for parabolic flight to simulate microgravity— in collaboration with the Canadian Space Agency. This is the second year a team from U of T Engineering was selected for the competition.

Team FAM’s experiment will examine heat transfer in paramagnetic fluids and their behavior under external magnetic fields. To carry out the experiment, the team developed a compact optical setup that enables them to “see” the temperature of the fluid. A fluid cell holds the paramagnetic fluid, and a set of two electromagnetic coils is positioned around it.

Team FAM’s prototype, which will be used to investigate the effectiveness of heat transfer mechanisms of a paramagnetic fluid in microgravity. (Photo: Courtesy of Team FAM)

The team’s literature review suggests nobody has ever visualized the heat distribution in a paramagnetic fluid under microgravity conditions before.

“We have a system that will — at the peak of the flight when we hit zero gravity — automatically trigger the experiment to start,” says Upadhyaya. “We’ll do one parabola, gather the data, and repeat the experiment with different parameters. The plan is to do eight to 10 parabolas.”

The team’s goal is to gain a better understanding of how paramagnetic fluids behave in zero gravity, which could lead to improved heat management in space craft, space stations and satellites; as well as a better understanding of the fundamental behaviour of magnetic fluids in microgravity.

“In a space station, they may want to shuttle heat from one component to another,” Upadhyaya says. “Paramagnetic fluids offer an interesting solution, and by testing various magnetic patterns in our experiment — although it’s only one small step — it’ll provide some idea of the most effective way to use paramagnetic fluids in heat transfer.”

Outreach is an important part of Team FAM’s goals, as they plan to share their project with high school students to showcase the opportunities available in engineering at the post-secondary level.

“We wanted to inspire high school students, get the word out there, and showcase what they can do in engineering at university — especially the University of Toronto,” Upadhyaya says.

This story originally appeared in the U of T Engineering News.


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